MCD Inc.

Publications & Research

Vector bionomics and transmission intensities of malaria vectors on Bioko Island over 14 years of integrated vector control

Entomological surveillance has been an integral part of the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) since the implementation of the project in 2004.

Is Bioko getting the hang of it? Evaluation of a universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) door-to-door distribution and hang-up campaign in Equatorial Guinea

Despite the known effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in providing protection against malaria, maintaining universal coverage and use continues to be a challenge.

Factors associated with refusal and reluctance to Indoor Residual Spraying on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) has proven to be a robust control measure against malaria, and until 2015 it was the primary vector control strategy under the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP).

Follow-up of LLIN’s soon after a mass distribution campaign in two urban districts in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea

The Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) uses bed nets as the primary vector control strategy on Bioko Island.

The use of a Campaign Information Management System for rapid and efficient mass distribution and monitoring of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets in an urban setting of Bioko Island

It is well established that long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) can be used as a core vector control tool to reduce malaria transmission in endemic countries.

Impact of construction of social housing units on malaria vector abundance on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

Construction of massive infrastructures that are often associated with urbanization has profound implications on malaria epidemiology and vector control in Africa.

Fine-scale mapping of localities households to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate malaria control campaigns on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

The Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP), in collaboration with the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Equatorial Guinea, has been implementing malaria control activities on Bioko Island for at least 14 years.

Community engagement and the use of household mapping to target sensitization and improve IRS coverage on Bioko Island

Since its inception in 2004, the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) has relied on Island-wide IRS as one of the major malaria vector control strategies.

Trends in ITN, IPTp-SP usage and malaria prevalence and anaemia in pregnant women on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends and emphasizes the use of insecticide treated bednets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for all pregnant women in areas of stable transmission of P. falciparum malaria.

Utilizing a Campaign Information Management System and high-performance liquid chromatography for improved Quality Control of Indoor Residual Spraying with Actellic 300 CS organophosphate insecticide on Bioko Island of Equatorial Guinea.

Quality control of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) is necessary to ensure spray operators do not falsify spray records and that they deposit the recommended lethal dose of insecticides on spray walls.

Assessing IRS performance and barriers in a gender-integrated vector control program on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

Due to social, economic and physiological barriers, women have historically been underrepresented in spray programs across Sub-Saharan Africa.

The prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium species among children at Malabo Regional Hospital on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections account for about 99% of the total malaria cases in Africa.

Qualitative assessment of long-lasting insecticidal nets to prevent malaria on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

This qualitative study sought to examine incentives and barriers to LLIN use, care, and upkeep to inform social and behavior change communication strategies for integrated malaria control.

Challenges of achieving effective contraception women of reproductive potential in malaria vaccine trials in Equatorial Guinea

Past studies have shown that the knowledge and use of contraception among women of reproductive potential in Equatorial Guinea is limited.

Screening Failures: How to improve coverage of vaccination?

Evaluation of the PfSPZ vaccine has been conducted in Equatorial Guinea (EG) since 2015.

Social-Structural Implications of Malaria Vaccine Trials in Equatorial Guinea.

The Equato‐Guinean Malaria Vaccine Initiative (EGMVI) was established in 2014.

Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of PfSPZ Vaccine in Equatoguinean Children and Older Adults.

PfSPZ Vaccine is a candidate pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine composed of aseptic, purified, live (metabolically active), radiation-attenuated, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) NF54 sporozoites (SPZ).

Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity and Efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine versus PfSPZ-CVac in Equatoguinean Young Adults.

PfSPZ Vaccine is a candidate pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine composed of radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) NF54 sporozoites (SPZ).

Lesson learned: Development of National Archive of Malaria Slides (NAMS) in the DR Congo

The accuracy of malaria diagnosis by microscopy has been a challenge in health facilities in the DRC due to inadequate training, quality assurance, and maintenance of microscopy skills.

Enhancing the private health sector’s role through access to subsidized malaria commodities: game changer in Benin’s supply chain

As much as 60% of Benin’s malaria cases are diagnosed in the private health sector, where 70% of all antimalarials are also purchased, yet historically, the private sector has not adhered to national malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines and has faced challenges with maintaining adequate stock-levels of malaria commodities.

Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Klouekanmey and Djougou, Republic of Benin

In 2008, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was introduced as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Benin.

Mass screening campaigns to increase awareness of cervical cancer treatment and prevention in Equatorial Guinea

Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women and represents 7.9% of all female cancers.

Incidence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Equatorial Guinea

According to the World Health Organization, 34 out of every 100,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 23 out of 100,000 cases are fatal.

Achieving an innovative and sustainable Performance-Based Financing program with the introduction of Risk Based Verification and Skills Based Quality Assessments in Lesotho

In 2014, the Lesotho Ministry of Health (MoH) launched the Health Sector Performance Enhancement (HSPE) Project funded by the World Bank to improve maternal and newborn health by Performance-Based Financing.

Evaluation of community-level vector control activities and A. aegypti egg density indices in Guatemala

The Zika Community Response (ZICORE) project in Guatemala aims to improve surveillance of the Aedes vector by using entomological data as the basis for low-cost community-level vector monitoring as well as social and behavior change interventions.

Use of dispersion index to identify key containers responsible for Aedes aegypti breeding in select communities of Guatemala

As part of the Zika Community Response (ZICORE) project in Guatemala, we quantified household containers that could become Aedes aegypti breeding sites in order to gather entomological data to target Zika prevention and control interventions.

Strengthening of the National Health Information System through the use of GIS Maps in Health Facilities on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

The Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP), in collaboration with the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) of Equatorial Guinea has developed, designed, and implemented the National Health Information System (NHIS).

Mapping Global Sanitation Fund Open-Defecation Free, Non-Open Defecation Free, and Slipped Villages in Madagascar

The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal 6 addresses globally the lack of water and sanitation. Unfortunately, proper sanitation access has not had the same success as clean water access as one third of the global population still lacks access to sanitation facilities.

A Comparison Between two Strategies for Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment: Hospital Based Fixed Sites vs. Community Based Mobile Campaigns in Equatorial Guinea

Cervical cancer ranks as the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the cancer with the highest mortality among women in Equatorial Guinea.

Social Behavior Change Communication and bednet retention, care, repair, use and impact in Benin

The use of durable, long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) is key to tackle malaria in Benin.

Net migration or non-use? Bed net ownership following mass distribution campaigns on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

The objective of this study was to describe the patterns of use and explore factors related to attrition following two long-lasting insecticide treated net (LLIN) distribution campaigns.

Assessing the impact of malaria and malaria control interventions on the welfare of the population on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

The Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) has conducted intensive malaria control interventions on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea since 2005.

Understanding the Environment of Malaria-Related Behaviors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLIN) are the two largest vector control interventions used by the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

The relationship between P. falciparum parasitemia from MIS data among pregnant women and children and assessing the use of ANC data for estimating malaria prevalence.

Malaria control programs often target vulnerable populations such as children and pregnant women.

Assessment of Behavior Change Communication (BCC) interventions in support of malaria control activities conducted in Benin by PMI's ARM3 project

In Benin, from 2012 to 2014, PMI ARM3 project conducted Behavior Change Communication (BCC) activities in 28 of 34 health zones (HZs).

Reduced malaria commodity stock-outs at health facility level through monthly supervision in Benin

To reduce stock-outs of essential malaria commodities at health facilities (HFs), the President's Malaira Initiative (PMI) piloted a monthly supervision approach in two purposively selected health districts in Benin.

Lessons Learned: Malaria Diagnostic Refresher Training in Africa Francophone Countries

Since 2010, WHO has recommended that testing all suspected malaria cases with a parasitological test and high quality malaria microscopy remains the diagnostic standard.

Improving Quality of Care and Perceived Client Satisfaction with Performance-Based Financing in Lesotho.

The Lesotho Ministry of Health initiated a World Bank funded Maternal and Newborn Health Performance-Based Financing (PBF) project in 2014, later re-structured as Health Sector Performance Enhancement Project.

Preliminary report of a study on "effectiveness, safety and acceptability of cervical cancer screening (CCS) using a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cold coagulation (CC) based single-visit approach in Yat Sauk Township in Shan State, Myanmar"

Cervical cancer is the second most frequent woman cancer in Myanmar and screen coverage was lower than one percent in Myanmar.

Competency Test for Visual Inspection of Cervical Lesions with Acetic Acid (VIA). Equatorial Guinea-Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment Project

As part of MCDI-Equatorial Guinea Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment Project, a training on Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid was held in March 2017 in Malabo.

Reduced Prevalence of Malaria Infection in Children Living in Houses with Window Screening or Closed Eaves on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

Previous studies demonstrated that fewer mosquitoes enter houses which are screened or have closed eaves.

Reducing costs and operational constraints of dengue vector control by targeting productive breeding places: a multi-country non-inferiority cluster randomized trial

To test the non-inferiority hypothesis that a vector control approach targeting only the most productive water container types gives the same or greater reduction of the vector population as a non-targeted approach in different ecological settings and to analyse whether the targeted intervention is less costly.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PREVALENCE OF PARASITEMIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND CHILDREN: BIOKO ISLAND MALARIA INDICATOR SURVEY 2008-2015

Pregnant women have been one of the main targets in the efforts to control malaria and in some settings they are routinely screened and treated or provided anti malaria prophylaxes and also provided ITNs.

ONE YEAR OF COMMUNITY LED LARVICIDING: BIOKO ISLAND

Background: Larviciding has historically recorded success in vector control, known to be effective in urban setting where breeding sites are generally and easily assessable.

MALARIA SURVEILLANCE DURING THE TRANSIT FROM CONTROL TO PRE-ELIMINATION

The 2012 WHO manual of surveillance for malaria control proposed the monitoring of suspected cases, however the same manual fostered the use of confirmed malaria cases.

EVALUATING STRATIFIED MALARIA CONTROL INTERVENTIONS IN BIOKO ISLAND: DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO FOCALIZED INTENSIFIED MALARIA CONTROL INTERVENTIONS THROUGH SPATIAL CLUSTERING AND RISK MAPS

The Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) created a geo-referenced mapping system in 2012 assigning a unique identifier to all households similar to an address.

A CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO COMPARE BENDIOCARB AND DELTAMETHRIN FOR INDOOR RESIDUAL SPRAYING ON BIOKO ISLAND, EQUATORIAL GUINEA

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) - spraying the interior walls of houses with insecticide - has been used on Bioko for malaria control since 2004.

WHY NO NETS? AN IN-DEPTH INVESTIGATION INTO THE DECREASE IN NET ACCESS ON BIOKO ISLAND AFTER BEDNET DISTRIBUTION

From December 2014 to June 2015, the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) conducted a mass-top up LLIN distribution campaign on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

STRATIFICATION OF INDOOR RESIDUAL SPRAYING (IRS) IN BIOKO ISLAND: METHODOLOGY AND IMPACT

The Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) uses a GIS-based Campaign Information Management System (CIMS) that uniquely identifies each household based on geographical location.

LAND COVER DETERMINANTS OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM PREVALENCE IN URBAN AND PERI-URBAN AREAS OF NORTHERN BIOKO ISLAND

Beginning in 2015, the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) adopted a strategic and targeted approach of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria prevention.

EQUATORIAL GUINEA'S FIRST EVER CLINICAL TRIAL: TOLERABILITY, SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF PFSPZ VACCINE IN YOUNG EQUATOGUINEAN ADULTS

PfSPZ Vaccine is a candidate pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine composed of radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ).

QUANTIFICATION OF BED-NET LOSS AND LEAKAGE FOLLOWING A MASS-DISTRIBUTION CAMPAIGN ON BIOKO ISLAND USING THE CAMPAIGN INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CIMS)

Between December 2014 and June 2015, the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) distributed 149,287 long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) to 61,000 households on Bioko Island, achieving an Island-wide coverage of at least 1 LLIN per household of 87%.

Improved Monitoring of IRS coverage on Bioko Island through the use of GIS-Based Campaign Information Management System (CIMS)

A presentation concerning efforts made by the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project to strengthen the monitoring of IRS coverage through the use of a geographic information system based Campaign Information Management System running on Android-based tablets.

Five years of malaria control in the continental region, Equatorial Guinea

A successful malaria control programme began in 2004 on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

Light traps fail to estimate reliable malaria mosquito biting rates on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

The human biting rate (HBR), an important parameter for assessing malaria transmission and evaluating vector control interventions, is commonly estimated by human landing collections (HLC).

Limited Usefulness of Microsatellite Markers From the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae When Applied to the Closely Related Species Anopheles melas

Anopheles melas is a brackish water mosquito found in coastal West Africa where it is a dominant malaria vector locally

How Much Does Malaria Vector Control Quality Matter: The Epidemiological Impact of Holed Nets and Inadequate Indoor Residual Spraying

Insecticide treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the two pillars of malaria vector control in Africa, but both interventions are beset by quality and coverage concerns.

Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic areas around the world.

Short Report: Estimation of the Human Blood Index in Malaria Mosquito Vectors in Equatorial Guinea after Indoor Antivector Interventions

We determined the Human Blood Index (HBI) of malaria mosquito vectors in Equatorial Guinea.

Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri circulate simultaneously in African communities

It has been proposed that ovale malaria in humans is caused by two closely related but distinct species of malaria parasite, Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri.

Determinants of bed net use in children under five and household bed net ownership on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

As part of comprehensive malaria control strategies, the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) distributed 110,000 long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) in late 2007 with the aim of providing one net for each sleeping area.

Serological Markers Suggest Heterogeneity of Effectiveness of Malaria Control Interventions on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

In order to control and eliminate malaria, areas of on-going transmission need to be identified and targeted for malaria control interventions.

Marked Increase in Child Survival after Four Years of Intensive Malaria Control

In malaria-endemic countries in Africa, a large proportion of child deaths are directly or indirectly attributable to infection with Plasmodium falciparum.

Targeted Top-Up of LLINs Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

The BIMCP is being implemented on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, an Island with a population of approximately 250,000 people located in the Gulf of Guinea where malaria transmission is year-round and was the primary source of morbidity and mortality prior to the inception of the BIMCP in 2004.

Malaria Microscopy Competency in Liberia Post Ebola Disease Outbreak

Since 2010 Liberia has progressively moved toward parasitological diagnosis of malaria. However in the last two years - since the first confirmed case of Ebola virus disease (EVD) on March 17, 2014, through January 14, 2016, when the World Health Organization (WHO) declared an end to the most recent outbreaks - the public health system has been overwhelmed managing this new disease

A comparison of the effectiveness of Behavior Change Communication (BCC) plus repair kits and BCC alone in promoting repair of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Benin

We compared strategies to increase net durability in 2014. Three groups of 300 households (HH) were randomly assigned to two intervention arms and one control arm.

Lessons learned: Malaria Case Management training in Madagascar

To help scale up high-quality diagnosis and case management services for malaria and other febrile illnesses, MalariaCare is supporting Madagascar's National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) to conduct clinical case management training in the Menabe region, with training sites in Morondava, Belo, Miandrivazo and Mahabo

Relationship between the prevalence of parasitemia in pregnant women and children: Bioko Island Malaria Indicator Survey 2008 - 2015

Pregnant women have been one of the main targets in the efforts to control malaria and in some settings they are routinely screened and treated or provided anti malaria prophylaxes and also provided ITNs. Studies have indicated that they are more likely to have detectable malaria due to higher parasite densities.

One Year of Community Led Larviciding: Bioko Island

Larviciding has historically recorded success in vector control, known to be effective in urban setting where breeding sites are generally and easily assessable. This study is aimed accessing acceptability and implementation of a community led larviciding in a rural setting.

Malaria Incidence Among Oil/Gas Workers After Three Years of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and two of Improved Case Management on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG)

The Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) is a collaborative effort ofMarathon Oil, Atlantic Methanol (AMPCO) and partners, the government of Equatorial Guinea (EG), Medical Care Development International and other non-profit partners, and academic institutions. Its aim is to reduce malaria transmission and morbidity and mortality due to malaria in oil workers and in the general population though the use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and other control measures.

Infection importation: a key challenge to malaria elimination on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

The impact of importation of falciparum malaria from mainland Equatorial Guinea on malaria infection in non-travellers and travellers on Bioko Island was examined.

Increasing outdoor host seeking in Anopheles Gambiae over 6 years of vector control on Bioko Island

Vector control through indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been employed on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, under the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) since 2004. This study analyses the change in mosquito abundance, species composition and outdoor host-seeking proportions from 2009 to 2014,after 11 years of vector control on Bioko Island.

Outdoor biting by Anopheles mosquitoes on Bioko Island does not currently impact on malaria control

There have been many recent reports that the rate of outdoor biting by malaria vectors has increased. This study examined the impact this might have on malaria transmission by assessing the association between exposure to outdoor bites and malaria infection on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

Campaign Management Information System (CMIS) for Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Net (LLIN) Mass Distributions

MCDI is currently implementing an Android based tablet application designed to plan, manage, and monitor any service delivery campaigns at the household and individual level.

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Malaria Control in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

The Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) has carried out intensive interventions since early 2004 to reduce malaria transmission through indoor residual spraying (IRS) and case management.

Country-level operational implementation of the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management

Malaria control is reliant on the use of long-lasting pyrethroid-impregnated nets and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide.